MilliMobile: Robotics with Battery-free Autonomy

Harnessing Solar and RF Energy: How MilliMobile Transforms Robotics for Good

MilliMobile emerges as the first-ever battery-free autonomous robot, capable of functioning on harvested solar and RF energy. This innovation redefines our expectations of robotic mobility and energy efficiency, offering an eco-friendly solution for a plethora of applications, from industrial settings to agriculture.

“We challenge the conventional assumption that motion and actuation are beyond the capabilities of battery-free devices,”


Energy Efficiency through Miniaturization

MilliMobile employs a gram-scale design, dramatically reducing the energy requirements for its operation. By leveraging small capacitors to move motors in discrete steps, the microrobot achieves intermittent motion using as little as 50 µW of power.

Smart Power Harvesting Techniques

Maximizing energy use, MilliMobile’s software-defined techniques aim to harness power in the most efficient way. By operating in the optimal part of the charging curve, the robot can attain maximum speeds of up to 5.5 mm/s.

Robust and Versatile Mobility

With a 10×10 mm chassis and a weight of less than 1.1 grams, MilliMobile displays incredible versatility. It operates on a variety of surfaces, including wood, concrete, and compact soil, while being able to carry payloads three times its weight.

Sensor and Control Autonomy

MilliMobile isn’t just about motion; it’s also equipped with onboard photodiodes that enable it to seek out light. Additionally, it can wirelessly transmit sensor data, such as temperature and humidity, to a base station over 200 meters away.

Environmental and Long-term Benefits

By avoiding the use of batteries, MilliMobile serves as a sustainable solution that sidesteps the common pitfalls of degradation and environmental harm commonly associated with battery-powered robots.


  • Chassis Size: 10×10 mm
  • Weight: < 1.1 g
  • Maximum Speed: 5.5 mm/s
  • Payload Capacity: 3x its weight
  • Operational Surfaces: 10 types
  • Transmission Range: > 200 m
  • Minimum Power Requirement: 50 µW


MilliMobile’s battery-free autonomous operation holds the promise of revolutionizing the robotics industry, particularly for applications requiring long-term deployment in challenging environments. This innovation stands as a cornerstone for future research on battery-free actuators and robotic networking.


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